I am immensely proud that almost 3 years of work has now been published in PNAS https://www.pnas.org/content/118/5/e2016980118. At the center of this paper is that we can measure if people are paying attention online by using web cameras to track peoples eye movements. Before you say “that sounds creepy”, then we can actually do this without sending any information about you to our server, thus preserving privacy. We can even predict how well students would do on a test, based on the material presented in the video. We did this with over 1000 students using their own webcams to track their eye movements.
So where did this all start? Ill tell you the journey we went through.
Just as Wikipedia has become a go-to source of information, so has instructional videos often found on YouTube. Everything from TED talks to videos about why stars are star-shaped? Online education has been growing rapidly, where you can take everything from fully fledged college degrees, to short courses on everything from language to knitting. When the NSF funded project I was hired in at the City College of New York started 3 years ago, we wanted to look in to online education. Specifically we wanted to look in to how this online format keeps students engaged, or maybe the lack of it, as the retention rates of students is staggeringly low. So how can we improve online learning? We believe one of the key challenged in education is the student teacher interaction. A good teacher can gauge whether students are lost or simply just not paying attention. Teachers react to this by changing teaching styles or give students some tasks that will hopefully engage students again. Some people are better at this than others of course, I remember too many super boring teachers, where sleeping might have been the only way to get through it (don’t tell anyone) but I stayed awake of course 😉
So how do we build tools that enable us to measure the level of attention of students online, that hopefully will enable both teachers and online education providers the possibility to react and make online education adaptive, just as a good teacher does in the classroom?
Working in the department of Biomedical Engineering at CCNY, in the Neural Engineering group for Prof. Lucas Parra, our go-to tools stems from Neuroscience. In the past we showed that the Inter-Subject Correlation (ISC) of EEG could actually measure the level of attention of students and in fact predict the students test scores based on the short videos they watched. But having an EEG set on every time you want to go to “class”, might not be so practical. So we looked for inspiration from what teacher do in a classroom. Teachers often have an easy time seeing whether they have lost their students. They simply look at their students eyes. If you are looking somewhere else, on your phone, out the window or at some of the other cute student in the class, then they are probably not paying attention to the teacher. If you are not paying attention, then you probably wont remember much of what the teacher was saying.
With this knowledge we did a first study and measured students eye movements as they watched 5 different short informal instructional videos, often found on YouTube. To then test whether or not students eye movements actually changed when they weren’t paying attention, we had the students watch the videos again, but this time we asked them to count backwards in decrements of 7 from a high prime number between 800 and 1000. The reason for the range was simply to remove any learning effect, as the students had to restart the counting backwards every time they watched a new video for the second time.
(more to come)